Pre 1900 Canada

George Arundel Hill    
A guide for emigrants from the British shores to the woods of Canada.

 Page 20
The prevailing trees here are maples , beech , hemlocks , cedars , basswood, and elms; pines and oaks are numerous in particular districts, but in general are only found scattered among the others. The maple , or Canadian sugar cane, is a tall and handsome tree : excellent firewood ; but except when found bird-eyed, or with a curled grain, not in request for other purposes.  The beech resembles that of the old country, and seems of a good quality ; it is also a fine firewood. Hemlocks are very like pines ; their bark is used by tanners, and this seems the only use they answer. The cedars are of the white kind, and rank among the most incorruptible trees in building log-houses. The bass is usually selected for roofing shanties, as it splits easily, and commonly very fair, besides the wood is soft, and takes less labour to hollow out the troughs. There is a variety of the elm, called white or rock elm, which seems superior to all other trees for general furniture and frame-work ; it is close-grained, hard, heavy, and extremely tough; it makes capital axe-handles. Ash is also found here ; one variety, called the black ash , is approved for log-houses; but other purposes the wood is I believe, worth little. Besides these we have iron-wood , hickory, balsam, and perhaps a few others. Plumb and cherry-trees are scattered through our forests, as are also gooseberry and currant bushes, and even the vine and hop plant are not wanting.
Page 26
Having decided on the extent and plan of the edifice, your men proceed to hew down such trees, convenient to the intended site, as are of a proper thickness.  The straighter these are, the better; and if cedars can be procured without much difficulty, they should be chosen. Maples are said to decay very soon — in some cases after five or six years; but thought it might be impossible to make them last for a great length of time, I suspect the true cause of the so rapid decay of the shanties alluded lo, was their having been constantly soaking water, whenever rain fell, from the gross laziness or neglect of the persons who occupied them.

The Canadian Canoe Company, Peterborough, Ontario
Nassau Canoe model 

Page 6
“A” These are built of alternate strips of Cedar and Butternut ¼ inch thick, nailed with copper wire boat nails to half oval Oak or Elm ribs 5/8 x 5/16 inch, placed in the canoe 1 3/8 inches apart. There are from 15 to 18 strips on each side, tapered from centres and halves at joints. They have Walnut stem and stern pieces ; Oak or Maple gunwales, and inside bottom boards of Butternut or Pine. They are finished throughout with the very finest quality of Boat Varnish, and being perfectly smooth on the inside, from one gunwale to the other, between the ribs, they are easily kept clean, and for durability and appearance, they are superior to any in the market.
Løiten, Hedmark 12/5/2016